Today it is International Day of Biodiversity. Saving the orangutan also means saving the remarkable bio-diversity of Indonesia and Borneo in general.
Indonesia has more unique species of mammals, birds, and butterflies than any other country in the world.
It is estimated that there are more than 300.000 wildlife species representing 17% of the world’s wildlife, despite Indonesia only covers 1.3% of the worlds land. Indonesia has the most mammals in the world (515 species) and is inhabited by 1.529 bird species.
According to IUCN in 2011, there exist 259 endemic mammals, 382 endemic birds and 172 endemic amphibians in Indonesia
Of Indonesian species, 772 species are threatened or endangered, giving Indonesia the third highest number of threatened species of any country in the world. However, Indonesia has the absolute highest number of threatened mammal species with 147 species – an increase of seven species since the year 2000.
Borneo, a bio hotspot
Borneo alone has 10,000-15,000 species of flowering plants, 3000 species of trees, 2000 orchids, and 1000 ferns. One tiny 1.12 hectare Bornean rainforest plot included 264 tree species and that did not include its palms, lianas, orchids, ferns and other vegetation.
Borneo is one of the world’s bio-hotspots and between 1995 and 2010 600 new species were discovered which is around 3 new species each month. Overall Borneos rainforest has 222 mammals (44 endemic), 420 different birdspecies (37 endemic), 100 amphibians and 394 fish (19 endemic). Furthermore, it is possible to find up to 1.000 insects in one tree on Borneo.
Among the endangered animals on Borneo are; The Asian Elephant, Sumatran Rhinoceres, Bornean clouded leopard and the Bornean Orangutan.
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